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Introduction of Red Fort

Red Fort or Lal Qila is most wonderful and oldest monument of Delhi. The Red Fort was founded in the year 1648 by Emperor Shah Jahan. The emperor Shah Jahan built this fort on the banks of Jamuna in Shahjahanabad, the city founded by him which is now known as Old Delhi. This fort is one of the most amazing pieces of Mughal structural design. The Red Fort is among the most wonderful palaces of the world. Shah Jahan was one of the greatest rulers of the Mughal Dynasty in India. In 1638 when the emperor moved the capital of India from Agra to Delhi, a new royal palace was constructed which was known as the Red Fort or Lal Qila.

The construction of the Red Fort begins in the year 1638 by Emperor Shah Jahan and it was finished in the year 1648. For about more than 200 years, Red Fort served as the hub of the Mughal Empire.

Red Fort

Architecture of the Red fort

The Red fort is very dominant fort with huge fortifications. The Lal Qila rises above a 9 m wide dry deep moat, initially fed by Yamuna River. Yamuna River has now shifted itself more than 1 km to the East. Red Fort is famous due to its huge red sandstone walls and the magnificient structure.

Red Fort is constructed in an octagon shape measuring 900 m by 550 m. The fort has some of the buildings of the Mughal government which are Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of private audiences), Diwan-i-am (Hall of public audience), domed and palaces of marble, luxurious private apartments, a mosque and richly designed gardens.

Even today, the fort remains an imposing evidence to majesty of Mughals, in spite of being attacked by the Persian Emperor Nadir Shah in 1739 and by the British soldiers in 1857 during the war of independence. Visitors can enter the Red Fort through magnificent Lahori Gate and Delhi Gates. Lahori Gate is the main entrance of the fort which leads to Chatta Chowk which is a shopping area.

The Fort exhibits a high level of decoration, and the Kohinoor diamond was part of the furnishings. Various artworks are seen in the fort like Indian, Persian and European art.
Major structures with the Fort are: Diwan-i-Aam, Delhi Gate, Diwan-i-Khas, Chhatta Chowk, Hayat Bakhsh Bagh, Rang Mahal, Khas Mahal, Lahori Gate, Water Gate, Naubat Khana, Nahr-i-Behisht, Mumtaz Mahal, Hammam, Moti Masjid, Hira Mahal, Shahi Burj and Princes quarter.

Attractions within the fort

Chatta Chowk - The main entrance Gate of the fort leads to the Chatta Chowk. it is a shopping centre during the Mughal period for the ladies of the court. In Chatta Chowk items like jewellery, silk and other household items were sold.
This bazaar has a large display of collection of jewellery, antiques, miniature paintings, ivory, silk, household items and carpets.

Naubat Khana - Naubat Khana is situated beyond the Chatta Chowk. It is the heart of the fort. The musicians usually play for the emperor from the Naubat Khana and the arrival of princes and royals was indicated from this place.

Public Audiences or Diwan-i-Am - The Fort also Hall of Public Audiences or Diwan-i-Am where the Emperor would sit and listen to complaints of people. It is also used for the functions of the state.

Mumtaz Mahal - Mumtaz Mahal has the Archaeological Museum of Red Fort.

Diwan-i-Khas - It is built in White Marble decorated with precious stones, it is the hall of the private audience where private meetings are held by the Emperor. On the ceiling above it are written the well-known verses of Amir Khusro in gold letters "If there is a heaven on earth, it is this, it is this, it is this." Today, the Diwan-i-Khas is only a pale shadow of its original magnificence, yet the verses of Amir Khusro reminds us of its former wonder.

The other attractions within this monument are the Royal Baths or hammams, the Shahi Burj, which used to be Shah Jahan's private working area and the Moti Masjid or the Pearl Mosque, built by Aurangzeb for his personal use.

Rang Mahal - Rang Mahal or "Palace of Colours"  is the place only for the wives and mistresses of the Emperor. This palace holds an amazing Lotus shaped fountain which is built of a single piece of marble. This place is amazingly decorated with beautiful paintings, elaborate mirrors and the ceiling of the palace is adorned with gold and silver.

Red Fort Inside

Red Fort Inside

Red Fort Front

Red Fort Inside

Red Fort Inside

Red Fort Inside


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